How can you weld cast iron safely without risks of cracking? That is a question that disturbs most cast iron welders. This is a result of the structure of iron, which consists of carbon. Consequently, welding may result in more crack damages than before. Luckily we will sort out that soonest.
Further, there are many techniques for welding cast iron. Among them is wire feed welding. How can you weld cast iron with a wire feed welder? Get to answer that by going through this guide. But more fundamentally, you will be at a position to weld cast iron all-by-yourself. Is that not fantastic? Keep reading.
Can you weld cast iron to steel?
It is no secret that cast iron is quite problematic to weld compared to mild steel. However, that does not make welding impossible. Why is the case?
Cast iron has substantial carbon content making it heat more quickly. Subsequently, there are uneven expansions while heating making it brittle and likely to lead to more cracks. Can you escape preheating while welding? Unfortunately, that is impossible, as it is a-must step while welding.
How can you heat the cast iron safely? That is indispensable if at all you want to prevent the cracks. Luckily, there is a way-out. Mitigate that by pre and post-heating to play around with the thermal stresses of the iron. This helps to prevent drastic expansions and contractions that lead to cracks.
Techniques of welding cast iron
Having known how to weld cast iron, you are likely to get the curiosity of how to get it done. Relax! Here are the four techniques to weld the mental. Though which is the best method? Let also that not trouble you. I will give not only in-depth details but also the best method that you can consider.
- Wire feed welding
Refers to techniques of joining two metals with an arc by heating. It works the same as TIG, MIG, arc, and gas welding. Hence, usually confused. However, we will clear that later. Like most other welding techniques, it makes use of shielding gas to avoid environmental pollution.
How do you weld cast iron with a wire feed welder? To begin, it employs the use of a fire welder machine and a wire feed welder electrode. The electrode is inserted in the machine while the welder presses the trigger.
That leads to the flow of the shielding gas while the rollers turn to action. The heat produced by the arc melts the electrode. Still, the welding metals melt to form the welding joint.
The thing you should be keen on while applying this technique is the travel angle. What is the travel angle? It refers to the angle between the welding plane and the gun. Ideally, this angle should range from 5-15 degrees.
Failure to get the correct angle may cause spatter’s and risk stability of the working equipment. Consequently, you will be prone to accidents
Advantages of wire feed welding.
- Uses fewer equipment’s hence economical
- It is complex which increases the risks of accidents
- It is slower compared to TIG, MIG, gas and arc welding
- TIG Welding
This is a type of welding technique whose electrode is of a non-consumable type. It uses a constant power supply of either direct or alternating current. The welder manually keeps the filler metal in the weld area while manipulating the welding torch.
However, there are automatic torches that have water or air in the cooling system. So how do you weld iron with the TIG technique? You start by preheating the metal until it turns to its molten state. That involves the use of an electric arc between the handheld torch and the electrode.
After the metal becomes molten, add the filler rod as the welding progresses. Also, you should put your safety first. Hence always have the welding pants and any other safety accessory.
Why should you use the TIG welding technique?
- It does not produce fumes or smokes which makes it safer compared to other methods
- Unlike other techniques, it does not require flux
- Creates high quality and clean metals
- When the metal is priory clean, it does not produce sparks
- Arc welding
This technique uses an arc welding machine which is power-driven to generate the needed heat. To prevent oxidation, the welding area needs to be protected by a shielding gas such as argon, or any other inert gas. However, some people also use slag or vapor.
How do you determine the voltage in arc welding? The required voltage of either direct or alternating current is directly related to the length of the mental. Hence, an increase in the metal size leads to an increase in the needed voltage.
The arc is manually placed along the line while the electrode caries the current used to melt the metal.
What are the advantages of arc welding?
- It works on even dirty metals perfectly
- Shielding gas is not necessary. It can be replaced by vapor or wind which is cheaper and available
- Uses few pieces of equipment hence more affordable
Similarly here are some situations why you should not use arc welding;
- When dealing with tin materials
- This technique requires high-level expertise. Hence, if you are not experienced in welding, you should pick another technique
Metal inert gas welding is a metal fusion process that uses an electric arc and an electrode. Like any other welding technique, it requires a shielding gas to prevent oxidation on the electrode
How do you MIG weld cast iron 590? Let’s start by identifying the equipment that you will need. They include a welding gun and a wire feed unit.
The process can be manual or automated. The latter removes the burden of maintaining a correct arc length. The operator guides the welding gun to the welding point periodically to avoid splatters. When in the solid-state, place the filler metal in the puddle.
The gun should be held between the workpieces at an angle of 45 degrees from the fillet. Also, it is vital to check on the stick-out distance to avoid the premature melting of the metal, especially when MIG welding cast iron 590
Why use MIG welding?
- It is fast
- Uncomplicated technique compared to the other techniques
- Gas welding
Finally, gas welding is a process that melts and fixes cast iron by heating with a flame produced by oxidation of a gas. Oxyacetylene is commonly used because of its large flame.
What are the requirements for gas welding? They include welding torch, filler metal, and ideal size of the flame.
After heating the metal using your choice of flame, place the filer metal. The fused metal combines with atmospheric oxygen and the oxygen from the torch to form a defective weld. Later, you can add a flux from high reactive metals such as potassium to remove the oxides.
Why use gas welding technique
- It does not require shielding gas hence economical
- A simple method
- Flux core welding
Welding cast iron with a flux core is highly preferred due to its simplicity. Hence, for an amateur in welding, you got a choice. But how do you do that? The first thing is placing the welding gun to the welding joint. Self-shielded flux core welding produces its own shielding gas.
As a result, you don’t require extra gas, which turns out to be economical. Additionally, it works on rusty metals without producing slang. Are you amazed? Yes, it is that simple and economical.
Also, don't forget to check my Welding Magnets and Clamps review here.
What is the best way to weld cast iron?
Frankly, the best welding technique is determined by your situation. For example, while working at a limited cost, gas welding technique can be your choice. Though, if you are a beginner, you will need less complicated technologies such as the MIG technique.
Even so, arc welding is recommended while dealing with metal surfaces. However, it does not work well with thin metals. However, if the metal is clean, you can consider TIG welding because it produces high quality metals. Also, this method is preferred for industries.
Steps on how to weld cast iron
Knowing the welding techniques is not enough without the procedure of how to achieve the end goal, which is to fix the cracks on the iron. That is why the methods of welding had to be offered.
However, before starting the task, always have the welding pants. Why so? They help to prevent getting burnt by the sparks. Nevertheless, with the added strength, they will withstand the likely tears and wear. With that said, let’s get to the key matter.
- 1Identify the alloy
Cast iron has a high content of carbon, which explains their hardness and its reduced malleability. The heating result in unexpected expansion and contraction when cooling. This may result in cracks that are not needed.
That gives the reason why you should include an alloy in the welding process. Some of the alloys that you consider are;
- Grey cast alloy
It is the conventional welding cast iron alloy. Grey cast alloy has graphite flakes like pearlite or ferrite crystals. Thus these flakes, which are ductile, ease the cast iron welding process.
However, these flakes may get their way into the weld metal, which may pose troubles to the welders.
- White cast alloy
This alloy comes in to solve the problems posed by the grey cast alloy. The white-grey cast alloy holds the cast iron carbon without the graphite flakes accelerating into the welding metal.
- Ductile or malleable iron
These alloys have different manufacturing, which equips makes them flexible. They constitute of spheroidal carbon. Consequently, they help in minimizing the cast iron brittleness.
- 2Clean the alloy
Most of the welding techniques do not work well on dirty metals. Hence, it is vital to get the metal clean for better results. The dirt on the welding area includes oil paint and grease.
Addedly, the castings need to be pure. How will you do that? Remove all the materials on the surface of casting to clean the welding area completely
- 3Pre heat
Iron is naturally brittle. Thus it may slightly or fail to deform by bending. However, some people argue that cold welding also works. But honestly, that might be energy draining.
Nonetheless, drastic temperature change on the metal may lead to cracks. Hence that brings the need for pre and post-heating to minimize the effects of heat.
After heating and fixing the filler metal, the next thing should be cooling. How do you cool a cast iron? One, you can place into sand or a warm oven for effective and harmless cooling. Also, some people leave the iron on a bench to cool. It is likely to take a single day.
- 4Choose the filler wire
This is another step in which most people go wrong. Needless to say that having the faulty electrode may cause more damage like corrosion. Here are fundamental factors that will help you get the best filler material;
- Check on the base material to be weld- the rule is that the filler material should match the strength of the base metals.
- Welding position- welding is usually done in a flat position. However, there might be cases in which you cannot attain that position, especially when working with a large weld. How will you maneuver that?
All you need is wires of different lengths. For example, a weld with a diameter of 3/32 you can use a wire of diameter 0.045 to 1/16
- Job specifications-
the stated regulations may state the type of filler wire you should use. It must meet the service condition of the weld.
- Shielding gas-
most of the welding techniques require shielding gas. Ads a matter of fact, the filler material needs to be compatible with the shielding gas.
- After the welding technique-
it is a good practice to post heat the metal. Consequently, the filler wire should respond appropriately to the application of the heat.
- 5Choose the welding technique
There four main techniques of welding iron, namely, arc, TIG, MIG, and gas welding. The techniques to be used are determined by several factors such as level of expertise, metal density, budget, and if the metals are clean or dirty.
If you are an expert in welding, you should go for a less complicated technique such as metal inert gas welding. However, when dealing with a limited budget, a technique that does not need much equipment is to be considered.
In the same case, a thin surface will need a different requirement that can be fulfilled by gas welding. Also, when working on limited time allocation, a fast technique like MIG welding.
It is worth noting that the techniques use different equipment and procedure. Ensure you read through them to get the needed insights.
This is the last but crucial step. As heating is critical to a cast iron, so is cooling. Drastic thermal contractions may lead to tensile stress, which results in cracks. Are you ready for that? I hope not.
The good news is that there is a way to prevent that. Apply comprehensive stress on the welding area to oppose the tensile stress that causes the cracks.
Frequently asked questions
Do you preheat cast iron before welding?
Cast iron welding is very ductile. Hence, you can’t expect to bend easily. However, some people choose to undergo bending struggles without heating.
Advisably, the cast iron needs to be preheated. This reduces the strains of not only positioning the iron but also bending it.
Can cast iron be welded or brazed?
The fact that welding cast iron is problematic, most people think it is impossible. Unknowingly, with the right equipment and appropriate guidance, it can be a do-it-yourself thing.
Also, you can consider brazing the cast iron. It is the best approach when all you need is repairing specific parts.
Can you weld cast iron with a stick welder?
Stick welders such as Everlast power Arc are preferred due to their ease in use. Besides, it is a fast technique for amateurs.
They are handy when welding dirty cast iron. Can you weld cast iron to steel with this method? Amazingly, you will not get that only done bet even faster. However, it does not work well with thin materials.
Can you weld cast iron with a wire feed welder?
Most people wonder if they can weld cast iron with a wire welder. The good news is that wire feed welder is a method that joins metals by continuously feeding the wire into the arc.
It is a less expensive method for minor welding projects. However, it does not work well on thin metals. Further, if you have a dirty metal, stick welding will not work.
You can turn welding cast iron to a do-it-yourself thing. Am I joking? Not at all. I am fully aware of the hardness of this metal, which is a resultant of its carbon molecular structure. But that can also be conquered with the ideal equipment and guidance.
There are several techniques of welding iron, which include TIG, MIG, ARC, and gas welding. What troubles most people is how to weld cast iron with a MIG welder. However, that is sorted out by this guide. Further, you will get to know all the possible welding techniques.